Tikun Ormus - Benefits of Iodine
Nearly 74% of normal, "healthy" adults in Australia may no longer consume enough iodine.
Did You Know This?
Around 60% of the iodine in the human body is stored in the thyroid gland.
Iodine is an essential trace element that is vital for normal growth and development.
According to W.H.O. reports, iodine deficiency is one of the leading causes of mental retardation all over the world.
Iodine controls the functioning of thyroid glands in human body, which in turn has a significant influence on the metabolic processes in the body. The health benefits of iodine help in the optimal utilization of calories, thereby preventing its storage as excess fat.
Other benefits of iodine are the removal of toxins from the body and assistance for the system in utilizing various minerals, like calcium and silicon.
Deficiency Symptoms of Iodine
A deficiency of iodine can have serious effects on the body.
The symptoms of iodine deficiency include frustration, depression, mental retardation, poor perception levels, goiter, abnormal weight gain, decreased fertility, coarse skin, chances of still birth in expectant mothers, constipation and fatigue.
In severe cases, mental retardation associated with diseases such as cretinism, characterized by serious physical malformations, can be the result.
Sources of Iodine
Iodine is present in large quantities in both marine plants and animals.
Health Benefits of Iodine
Iodine is required to ensure proper development and metabolism in humans. Some of its specific health benefits include:
Iodine influences the functioning of thyroid glands by assisting in the production of hormones, which are directly responsible for controlling the body's base metabolic rate.
Metabolic rate affects the efficiency and efficacy of many of the body's organ system and regular processes, including absorption of food, sleep cycles, and the transformation of food into usable energy.
Certain hormones, like thyroxin and triodothyronine, influence heart rate, blood pressure, body weight and temperature. The body maintains the BMR (Basic Metabolic Rate) with the help of these hormones, which also helps in protein synthesis.
Ensuring their normal creation and distribution in the body is key to maintaining health, so maintaining the thyroid gland which they come from is essential.
Iodine also plays an important role in maintaining optimal energy levels of the body by ensuring the efficient utilization of calories, without allowing them to be deposited as excess fats.
Healthy nails, hair and teeth
The health benefits of iodine include the formation of healthy and shiny skin, teeth and hair.
Iodine is an important element for hair care, as a lack of this mineral can result in hair loss.
Iodine helps in the normal growth and maturity of reproductive organs. A sufficient quantity of iodine in pregnant women is essential to prevent stillbirths or neurocognitive conditions like cretinism in the newborn babies.
It can also lead to gestational hypertension, which can result in a number of complications during infancy.
Iodine also ensures proper movement and growth, along with speech and hearing abilities.
Furthermore, besides affecting the health of the baby once it is conceived, a deficiency in iodine can actually make a woman infertile!
This condition is characterized by an under-active thyroid gland, and results in the general slowing down of all bodily processes as the chemical balance in your body goes off track.
One of the most common results of hypothyroidism is a large increase in weight, because your body simply doesn't burn off the calories of food and turn it into useful energy.
Although hypothyroidism can occur for a number of reasons, not just iodine deficiency, it is still a good idea to increase your intake of iodine and stimulate the hormonal activity that will help you lose the weight and body fat that is so common to hypothyroid patients.
Thyroid and Goiter disorders
Goiter (most typically) is when you see someone with a swollen neck.
Iodine deficiency is widely recognized as the basic cause of Goiter. You should add eggs, SEA salt (NOT table salt), sea food, and dairy products to your diet to avoid iodine deficiency, and also, this often works as a cure for an enlarged thyroid gland.
Iodine overdose of more than 2,000 mg could be dangerous, especially in people suffering from kidney ailments or tuberculosis (TB).
When taken in excess, iodine could result in thyroid papillary cancer, rather than helping to prevent it.
Pregnant women and nursing mothers should be cautious not to take iodine except in specifically prescribed doses.
A healthy balance is required, but different people's bodies will react differently to dose amounts, so be careful and observant.
- Abnet CC, Fan JH, Kamangar F, et al. Self-reported goiter is associated with a significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma in a large population-based Chinese cohort. Int J Cancer. 2006 Sep 15;119(6):1508-10.
- Aceves C, Anguiano B, Delgado G. Is iodine a gatekeeper of the integrity of the mammary gland? J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2005 Apr;10(2):189-96.
- Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/122714-overview. Accessed July 18, 2011.
- Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/iodine/. Accessed July 18, 2011.
- Baier-Anderson C, Blount BC, Lakind JS, Naiman DQ, Wilbur SB, Tan S. Estimates of exposures to perchlorate from consumption of human milk, dairy milk, and water, and comparison to current reference dose. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2006 Feb;69(3-4):319-30.
- Behrouzian R, Aghdami N. Urinary iodine/creatinine ratio in patients with stomach cancer in Urmia, Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 2004 Nov;10(6):921-4.
- Bibbins-Domingo K, Chertow GM, Coxson PG, et al. Projected effect of dietary salt reductions on future cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb 18;362(7):590-9.
- Bretthauer EW, Mullen AL, Moghissi AA. Milk transfer comparisons of different chemical forms of radioiodine. Health Phys. 1972 Mar;22(3):257-60.
- Caldwell KL, Jones R, Hollowell JG. Urinary iodine concentration: United States National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002. Thyroid. 2005 Jul;15(7):692-9.
- Canaris GJ, Steiner JF, Ridgway EC. Do traditional symptoms of hypothyroidism correlate with biochemical disease? J Gen Intern Med. 1997 Sep;12(9):544-50.
- Cann SA, van Netten JP, van Netten C. Hypothesis: iodine, selenium and the development of breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2000 Feb;11(2):121-7.
- Canturk Z, Cetinarslan B, Tarkun I, Canturk NZ, Ozden M. Lipid profile and lipoprotein (a) as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Endocr Res. 2003 Aug;29(3):307-16.
- Cohen M, Klein E, Kuten A, Fried G, Zinder O, Pollack S. Increased emotional distress in daughters of breast cancer patients is associated with decreased natural cytotoxic activity, elevated levels of stress hormones and decreased secretion of Th1 cytokines. Int J Cancer. 2002 Jul 20;100(3):347-54.
- Darcan S, Goksen D. Consequences of iodine deficiency and preventive measures. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2003 Dec;1 Suppl 2:162-8; discussion 68-9.
- Dasgupta PK, Liu Y, Dyke JV. Iodine nutrition: iodine content of iodized salt in the United States. Environ Sci Technol. 2008 Feb 15;42(4):1315-23.
- Dunn JT. Seven deadly sins in confronting endemic iodine deficiency, and how to avoid them. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Apr;81(4):1332-5.
- Eskin BA, Grotkowski CE, Connolly CP, Ghent WR. Different tissue responses for iodine and iodide in rat thyroid and mammary glands. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1995 Jul;49(1):9-19.
- Eskin BA. Iodine and mammary cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1977;91:293-304.
- Fazio S, Palmieri EA, Lombardi G, Biondi B. Effects of thyroid hormone on the cardiovascular system. Recent Prog Horm Res. 2004;59:31-50.
- Funahashi H, Imai T, Tanaka Y, et al. Suppressive effect of iodine on DMBA-induced breast tumor growth in the rat. J Surg Oncol. 1996 Mar;61(3):209-13.
- Garcia-Solis P, Alfaro Y, Anguiano B, et al. Inhibition of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis by molecular iodine (I2) but not by iodide (I-) treatment Evidence that I2 prevents cancer promotion. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005 May 31;236(1-2):49-57.
- Ghent WR, Eskin BA, Low DA, Hill LP. Iodine replacement in fibrocystic disease of the breast. Can J Surg. 1993 Oct;36(5):453-60.
- Goehring C, Morabia A. Epidemiology of benign breast disease, with special attention to histologic types. Epidemiol Rev. 1997;19(2):310-27.
- Golkowski F, Szybinski Z, Rachtan J, et al. Iodine prophylaxis—the protective factor against stomach cancer in iodine deficient areas. Eur J Nutr. 2007 Aug;46(5):251-6.
- Greer MA, Goodman G, Pleus RC, Greer SE. Health effects assessment for environmental perchlorate contamination: the dose response for inhibition of thyroidal radioiodine uptake in humans. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Sep;110(9):927-37.
- Gulaboglu M, Yildiz L, Celebi F, Gul M, Peker K. Comparison of iodine contents in gastric cancer and surrounding normal tissues. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(6):581-4.
- Gunton JE, Hams G, Fiegert M, McElduff A. Iodine deficiency in ambulatory participants at a Sydney teaching hospital: is Australia truly iodine replete? Med J Aust. 1999 Nov 1;171(9):467-70.
- Haentjens P, Van Meerhaeghe A, Poppe K, Velkeniers B. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and mortality: An estimate of relative and absolute excess all-cause mortality based on time-to-event data from cohort studies. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 Sep;159(3):329-41.
- Hoption Cann SA. Hypothesis: dietary iodine intake in the etiology of cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006 Feb;25(1):1-11.
- Inaudi P, Bernabei A, Gioffre W, et al. Plasma and cyst fluid levels of delta 5 and delta 4 steroid hormones in women with gross cystic breast disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1987 Dec;27(6):643-8.
- Iqbal A, Jorde R, Figenschau Y. Serum lipid levels in relation to serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and the effect of thyroxine treatment on serum lipid levels in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism: the Tromso Study. J Intern Med. 2006 Jul;260(1):53-61.
- James GD, Gastrich HJ, Valdimarsdottir HB, Bovbjerg DH. The rate of urinary cortisol excretion at work is persistently elevated in women at familial risk for breast cancer. Am J Hum Biol. 2008 Jul-Aug;20(4):478-80.
- Jung CH, Sung KC, Shin HS, et al. Thyroid dysfunction and their relation to cardiovascular risk factors such as lipid profile, hsCRP, and waist hip ratio in Korea. Korean J Intern Med. 2003 Sep;18(3):146-53.
- Kahaly GJ. Cardiovascular and atherogenic aspects of subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid. 2000 Aug;10(8):665-79.
- Kapil U, Sharma TD, Singh P, Dwivedi SN, Kaur S. Thirty years of a ban on the sale of noniodized salt: impact on iodine nutrition in children in Himachal Pradesh, India. Food Nutr Bull. 2005 Sep;26(3):255-8.
- Kilbane MT, Ajjan RA, Weetman AP, et al. Tissue iodine content and serum-mediated 125I uptake-blocking activity in breast cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Mar;85(3):1245-50.
- Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M, Buckova K, Klimes I, Sebokova E. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Ann Nutr Metab. 2003;47(5):183-5.
- Kramer CK, Von Muhlen D, Kritz-Silverstein D, Barrett-Connor E. Treated hypothyroidism, depressed mood, and cognitive function in old age: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 Dec; 161(6):917-21
- Krouse TB, Eskin BA, Mobini J. Age-related changes resembling fibrocystic disease in iodine-blocked rat breasts. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1979 Nov;103(12):631-4.
- Kupper FC, Carpenter LJ, McFiggans GB, et al. Iodide accumulation provides kelp with an inorganic antioxidant impacting atmospheric chemistry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 13;105(19):6954-8.
- Laurberg P, Nohr SB, Pedersen KM, et al. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency. Thyroid. 2000 Nov;10(11):951-63.
- Many MC, Papadopolos C, Martin I, et al. Iodine induced cell damage in mouse hyperplastic thyroid is associated with lipid peroxidation. In: Gordon A, Gross J, Hennemann G, eds. Progress in Thyroid Research. New York, NY: Routledge; 1991:213-5.
- Mariotti S, Cambuli VM. Cardiovascular risk in elderly hypothyroid patients. Thyroid. 2007 Nov;17(11):1067-73.
- McClure RD. Goiter prophylaxis with iodized salt. Science. 1935 Oct 18;82(2129):370–1.
- Molnar I, Magyari M, Stief L. Iodine deficiency in cardiovascular diseases. Orv Hetil. 1998 Aug 30;139(35):2071-3.
- Nagataki S, Shizume K, Nakao K. Thyroid function in chronic excess iodide ingestion: comparison of thyroidal absolute iodine uptake and degradation of thyroxine in euthyroid Japanese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1967 May;27(5):638-47.
- Nolan LA, Windle RJ, Wood SA, et al. Chronic iodine deprivation attenuates stress-induced and diurnal variation in corticosterone secretion in female Wistar rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2000 Dec;12(12):1149-59.
- Park YJ, Lee YJ, Choi SI, Chun EJ, Jang HC, Chang HJ. Impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on the coronary artery disease in apparently healthy subjects. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Jul;165(1):115-21.
- Patrick L. Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations. Altern Med Rev. 2008 Jun;13(2):116-27.
- Rizos CV, Elisaf MS, Liberopoulos EN. Effects of thyroid dysfunction on lipid profile. Open Cardiovasc Med J. 2011;5:76-84.
- Sanchez CA, Krieger RI, Khandaker N, Moore RC, Holts KC, Neidel LL. Accumulation and perchlorate exposure potential of lettuce produced in the Lower Colorado River region. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jun 29;53(13):5479-86.
- Shrivastava A, Tiwari M, Sinha RA, et al. Molecular iodine induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human breast carcinoma cells involving the mitochondria-mediated pathway. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jul 14;281(28):19762-71.
- Smyth PP, Duntas LH. Iodine uptake and loss-can frequent strenuous exercise induce iodine deficiency? Horm Metab Res. 2005 Sep;37(9):555-8.
- Smyth PP. Role of iodine in antioxidant defence in thyroid and breast disease. Biofactors. 2003;19(3-4):121-30.
- Smyth PP. The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2003;5(5):235-8.
- Smyth PP. Thyroid disease and breast cancer. J Endocrinol Invest. 1993 May;16(5):396-401.
- Snyder SA, Pleus RC, Vanderford BJ, Holady JC. Perchlorate and chlorate in dietary supplements and flavor enhancing ingredients. Anal Chim Acta. 2006 May 10;567(1):26-32.
- Spitzweg C, Harrington KJ, Pinke LA, Vile JG, Morris JC. Clinical review 132: the sodium iodide symporter and its potential role in cancer therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001 Jul;86(7):3327-35.
- Stadel BV. Dietary iodine and risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer. Lancet. 1976 Apr 24;1(7965):890-1.
- Stolc V. Stimulation of iodoproteins and thyroxine formation in human leukocytes by phagocytosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1971 Oct 1;45(1):159-66.
- Szybinski Z, Jarosz M, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, et al. Iodine-deficiency prophylaxis and the restriction of salt consumption - a 21st century challenge. Endokrynol Pol. 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):135-40.
- Thornton LM, Andersen BL, Carson WE, 3rd. Immune, endocrine, and behavioral precursors to breast cancer recurrence: a case-control analysis. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2008 Oct;57(10):1471-81.
- Titze J, Ritz E. Salt and its effect on blood pressure and target organ damage: new pieces in an old puzzle. J Nephrol. 2009 Mar-Apr;22(2):177-89.
- Topper YJ, Freeman CS. Multiple hormone interactions in the developmental biology of the mammary gland. Physiol Rev 1980 Oct;60(4):1049-106
- Triggiani V, Tafaro E, Giagulli VA, et al. Role of iodine, selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid function and disorders. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2009 Sep;9(3):277-94.
- Venturi S, Donati FM, Venturi A, Venturi M, Grossi L, Guidi A. Role of iodine in evolution and carcinogenesis of thyroid, breast and stomach. Adv Clin Path. 2000 Jan;4(1):11-7.
- Venturi S, Venturi M. Iodine in evolution of salivary glands and in oral health. Nutr Health. 2009;20(2):119-34.
- Venturi S. Is there a role for iodine in breast diseases? Breast. 2001 Oct;10(5):379-82.
- Verheesen RH, Schweitzer CM. Iodine deficiency, more than cretinism and goiter. Med Hypotheses. 2008 Nov;71(5):645-8.
- Wang GY, Zhou RH, Wang Z, Shi L, Sun M. Effects of storage and cooking on the iodine content in iodized salt and study on monitoring iodine content in iodized salt. Biomed Environ Sci. 1999 Mar;12(1):1-9.
- Wartofsky L. Management of subclinical hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan;96(1):59-61.
- Ziegler RG, Hoover RN, Pike MC, et al. Migration patterns and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993 Nov 17;85(22):1819-27.
- Zimmermann MB. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Feb;89(2):668S-72S.
- Zimmermann MB. Iodine deficiency. Endocr Rev. 2009 Jun;30(4):376-408.